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2018年考研(一月聯考)英語二真題及答案

來源:四川育路教育網 時間:2018-10-19 15:56:26

完形填空題

  Why do people read negative Internet comments and do other things that will obviously be painful? Because humans have an inherent need to _____ (1) uncertainty, according to a recent study in Psychological Science. The new research reveals that the need to know is so strong that people will _____ (2) to satisfy their curiosity even when it is clear the answer will_____ (3).

   In a series of four experiments, behavioral scientists at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business and the Wisconsin School of Business tested students' willingness to _____ (4) themselves to unpleasant stimuli in an effort to satisfy curiosity. For one _____ (5), each participant was shown a pile of pens that the researcher claimed were from a previous experiment. The twist? Half of the pens would _____ (6) an electric shock when clicked.

   Twenty-seven students were told which pens were rigged; another twenty-seven were told only that some were electrified. _____ (7) left alone in the room, the students who did not know which ones would shock them clicked more pens and incurred more jolts than the students who knew what would _____ (8). Subsequent experiments replicated this effect with other stimuli, _____ (9) the sound of fingernails on a chalkboard and photographs of disgusting insects.

  The drive to _____ (10) is deeply ingrained in humans, much the same as the basic drives for _____ (11) or shelter, says Christopher Hsee of the University of Chicago, a co-author of the paper. Curiosity is often considered a good instinct-it can _____ (12) new scientific advances, for instance-but sometimes such _____ (13) can backfire. The insight that curiosity can drive you to do _____ (14) things is a profound one.

  Unhealthy curiosity is possible to _____ (15), however. In a final experiment, participants who were encouraged to _____ (16) how they would feel after viewing an unpleasant picture were less likely to _____ (17) to see such an image. These results suggest that imagining the _____ (18) of following through on one's curiosity ahead of time can help determine _____ (19) it is worth the endeavor. "Thinking about long-term _____ (20) is key to mitigating the possible negative effects of curiosity," Hsee says. In other words, don't read online comments.

  1【題干】_____.

  【選項】

  A.resolve

  B.protect

  C.discuss

  D.ignore

  【答案】A

  【解析】句首作者提出疑問,“為什么人們會讀互聯網的負面評論和明顯很讓人傷心的其它事情呢?”隨后作者給出答案,“因為人們都有_____不確定性的內在需求”。[A]解決[B]保護[C]討論[D]忽視,根據動賓搭配關系,解決不確定性搭配合理。

  2【題干】_____.

  【選項】

  A.refuse

  B.wait

  C.seek

  D.regret

  【答案】C

  【解析】本題考查動介詞搭配。根據原文語境,需要選擇一個動詞和后面的“to”連用。[A]拒絕做...[B]等待做...[C]尋求,力求做...[D]后悔做...結合文意“人們要_____ 滿足他們的好奇心”來判斷,正選為[C]尋求,力求做。

  3【題干】_____.

  【選項】

  A.rise

  B.last

  C.mislead

  D.hurt

  【答案】D

  【解析】根據原文語境,“painful, uncertainty”均為消極詞匯。

  4【題干】_____.

  【選項】

  A.alter

  B.tie

  C.expose

  D.treat

  【答案】C

  【解析】固定搭配考查。根據原文語境,考查短語_____ sb to sth 意為“讓某人承受某事”。因此,C選項為正選。

  5【題干】_____.

  【選項】

  A.message

  B.trial

  C.review

  D.concept

  【答案】B

  【解析】根據上文,第二段句首提到in a series of four experiments,說明是在“實驗”的語境。結合四個選項,[A]信息[B]實驗[C]復習[D]觀念,只有B選項和段落語境相符合。因此為正選。

  6【題干】_____.

  【選項】

  A.remove

  B.weaken

  C.deliver

  D.interrupt

  【答案】C

  【解析】動賓搭配。結合語境,“當點擊的時候,一半的鋼筆會_____電流。”根據動賓搭配,本題需要一個動詞來搭配電流,考查四個選項,[A]移除[B]削弱[C]傳遞[D]打擾 A選項更符合語境。

  7【題干】_____.

  【選項】

  A.Unless

  B.If

  C.Though

  D.When

  【答案】D

  【解析】時間狀語的考查。結合語境,“_____被獨自留在房間,學生會……”,因此,這是一個非常明顯的時間狀語從句。正選為D.

  8【題干】_____.

  【選項】

  A.happen

  B.continue

  C.disappear

  D.change

  【答案】A

  【解析】動詞辨析。結合原文語境,由who 引導的定語從句修飾前面的學生,而在定語從句中,又出現由what引導的賓語從句。結合賓語從句的含義,“知道接下來會發生什么”更符合語境。

  9【題干】_____.

  【選項】

  A.rather than

  B.such as

  C.regardless of

  D.owing to

  【答案】B

  【解析】結合語境,后面語境為并列關系,因此此題應填舉例子。B為正選。

  10【題干】_____.

  【選項】

  A.disagree

  B.forgive

  C.forget

  D.discover

  【答案】D

  【解析】Discover 與上文中的Curiosity 相對應。

  11【題干】_____.

  【選項】

  A.pay

  B.marriage

  C.food

  D.schooling

  【答案】C

  【解析】本詞與后文的Basic drives 的詳細說明。與shelter一樣都屬于人類的基本需求。

  12【題干】_____.

  【選項】

  A.begin with

  B.rest on

  C.learn from

  D.lead to

  【答案】D

  【解析】破折號的內容是對前文instinct 的解釋。說明這種本能能夠促進新的科學發展,屬于因果關系。

  13【題干】_____.

  【選項】

  A.withdrawal

  B.inquiry

  C.persistence

  D.diligence

  【答案】B

  【解析】跟前文的drives 相對應。

  14【題干】_____.

  【選項】

  A.self-destructive

  B.self-reliant

  C.self-evident

  D.self-deceptive

  【答案】A

  【解析】本題與前文的backfire相對應,都屬于貶義詞。

  15【題干】_____.

  【選項】

  A.resist

  B.define

  C.replace

  D.trace

  【答案】A

  【解析】從后文的試驗中,參與者應該被鼓勵參與,因此跟前文的堅持相對應。

  16【題干】_____.

  【選項】

  A.predict

  B.overlook

  C.design

  D.conceal

  【答案】A

  【解析】通過后文的after能看出這個事情并沒有發生,因此填預測。

  17【題干】_____.

  【選項】

  A.remember

  B.choose

  C.promise

  D.pretend

  【答案】B

  【解析】動賓搭配。

  18【題干】_____.

  【選項】

  A.relief

  B.plan

  C.outcome

  D.duty

  【答案】C

  【解析】of 引導的后置定語。由一個人的好奇心所帶來的結果。

  19【題干】_____.

  【選項】

  A.whether

  B.why

  C.where

  D.how

  【答案】A

  【解析】whether 引導賓語從句。

  20【題干】_____.

  【選項】

  A.limitations

  B.investments

  C.strategies

  D.consequences

  【答案】D

  【解析】關聯對應,對應18題的outcome.

 

  閱讀理解

  Text 1

  It is curious that Stephen Koziatek feels almost as though he has to justify his efforts to give his students a better future.

  Mr. Koziatek is part of something pioneering. He is a teacher at a New Hampshire high school where learning is not something of books and tests and mechanical memorization, but practical. When did it become accepted wisdom that students should be able to name the 13th president of the United States but be utterly overwhelmed by a broken bike Chain?

  As Koziatek know, there is learning in just about everything. Nothing is necessarily gained by forcing students to learn geometry at a graffitied desk stuck with generations of discarded chewing gum. They can also learn geometry by assembling a bicycle.

  But he's also found a kind of insidious prejudice. Working with your hands is seen as almost a mark of inferiority. School in the family of vocational education "have that stereotype...that it's for kids who can't make it academically," he says.

  On one hand, that viewpoint is a logical product of America's evolution. Manufacturing is not the economic engine that it once was. The job security that the US economy once offered to high school graduates has largely evaporated. More education is the new principle. We want more for our kids, and rightfully so.

  But the headlong push into bachelor's degrees for all—and the subtle devaluing of anything less—misses an important point: That's not the only thing the American economy needs.Yes,a bachelor's degree opens moredoors. Buteven now,54 percent of the jobs in the country are middle-skill jobs, such as construction and high-skill manufacturing. But only 44 percent of workers are adequately trained.   In other words, at a time when the working class has turned the country on its political head, frustrated that the opportunity that once defined America is vanishing,one obvious solution is staring us in the face. There is a gap in working-class jobs, but the workers who need those jobs most aren't equipped to do them. Koziatek's Manchester School of Technology High School is trying to fill that gap.

  Koziatek's school is a wake-up call. When education becomes one-size-fits-all, it risks overlooking a nation's diversity of gifts.

  21.【題干】A broken bike chain is mentioned to show students' lack of_____.

  【選項】

  A.mechanical memorization

  B.academic training

  C.practical ability

  D.pioneering spirit

  【答案】C

  【解析】這是一道細節題,根據題干關鍵詞可定位至第二段最后一句話,意思是”什么時候這種觀點變得可接受了呢?學生應該能夠說出美國第十三任總統的名字,但是卻完全對壞了的自行車鏈束手無策”。從作者使用問句的形式就可判斷出作者并不接受這種觀點,即學生只學會書本上的知識而不具備實際能力。再結合上一句話即本段第二句話,Mr Koziatek是New Hampshire高中的一名老師,在這所學校,學習不只是書本上的知識,或者是為了考試,也不是為了機械化的記憶,而是為了實際的技能。能看出,作者認為學生們缺少的是實際技能,所以答案是C practical ability.

  22.【題干】There exists the prejudice that vocational education is for kids who_____.

  【選項】

  A.are financially disadvantaged

  B.are not academically successful

  C.have a stereotyped mind

  D.have no career motivation

  【答案】B

  【解析】這是一道具體細節題,根據題干關鍵詞職業教育對孩子存在的偏見可定位至第四段最后一句,意思是“在很多職業化教育的學校中,有這樣一種老套的思想,那就是,職業教育是針對那些在學術上不能成功的那些孩子的。”根據這句話可確定答案就是B are not academically successful. 其他選項均不符合文意。

  23.【題干】we can infer from Paragraph 5 that high school graduates_____.

  【選項】

  A.are entitled to more “ducational privileges

  B.are reluctant to work in manufacturing

  C.used to have more job opportunities

  D.used to have big financial concerns

  【答案】C

  【解析】這是一道細節推斷題,根據題干第五段和high school graduates 回到原文定位致第五段第三句,說到美國經濟曾經提供給高中畢業生的那種the job security已經在很大程度上evaporated也就是消失了,那說明過去的時候高中畢業生是有職業安全感的,故選C,其他選項都不在定位處,可以排除。

  24.【題干】The headlong push into bachelors degrees for all_____.

  【選項】

  A.helps create a lot of middle-skill jobs

  B.may narrow the gap in working-class jobs

  C.is expected to yield a better-trained workforce

  D.indicates the overvaluing of higher education

  【答案】D

  【解析】這是一道事實細節題,根據題干內容“the headlong push”找到出處是第六段開頭But后,發現后面還有一個and...和其并列,所以主要關注對這兩部分的評價,后面有明顯的標點:冒號出現,冒號后說that is not the only thing the American economy needs. 可以看出這句話對前面的否定,選項中只有D選項動詞overvalue是負面詞,而且提到主題詞education。故選D。這道題最適合用感情色彩來排除與D相反的其他三個選項。

  25.【題干】The author's attitude toward Koziatek's school can be described as_____.

  【選項】

  A.supportive

  B.disappointed

  C.tolerant

  D.cautious

  【答案】A

  【解析】這是一道態度題,放在最末的態度題更傾向于到最后一段找答案。通過定位詞Koziatek’s school 看到最后一段也確實提到了,說它是一個wake-up call。也就是在喚醒人們教育不應該是統一的形式,這樣會overlooking a nation’s diversity of gifts,也就是忽視人才的差異性。所以可以看出作者是支持的態度。

  Text 2

  While fossil fuels – coal, oil, gas – still generate roughly 85 percent of the world’s energy supply, it’s clearer than ever that the future belongs to renewable sources such as wind and solar. The move to renewables is picking up momentum around the world. They now account for more than half of new power sources going on line.

  Some growth stems from a commitment by governments and farsighted businesses to fund cleaner energy sources. But increasingly the story is about the plummeting prices of renewables, especially wind and solar. The cost of solar panels has dropped by 80 percent and the cost of wind turbines by close to one-third in the past eight years.

  In many parts of the world renewable energy is already a principal energy source. In Scotland, for example, wind turbines provide enough electricity to power 95 percent of homes. While the rest of the world takes the lead, notably China and Europe, the United States is also seeing a remarkable shift. In March, for the first time, wind and solar power accounted for more than 10 percent of the power generated in the US, reported the US Energy Information Administration.   President Trump has underlined fossil fuels – especially coal – as the path to economic growth. In a recent speech in Iowa, he dismissed wind power as an unreliable energy source. But that message did not play well with many in Iowa, where wind turbines dot the fields and provide 36 percent of the state’s electricity generation – and where tech giants like Microsoft are being attracted by the availability of clean energy to power their data centers.

  The question "what happens when the wind doesn’t blow or the sun doesn’t shine?" has provided a quick put-down for skeptics. But a boost in the storage capacity of batteries is making their ability to keep power flowing around the clock more likely.

  The advance is driven in part by vehicle manufacturers, who are placing big bets on battery-powered electric vehicles. Although electric cars are still a rarity on roads now, this massive investment could change the picture rapidly in coming years.   While there’s a long way to go, the trend lines for renewables are spiking. The pace of change in energy sources appears to be speeding up – perhaps just in time to have a meaningful effect in slowing climate change. What Washington does – or doesn’t do – to promote alternative energy may mean less and less at a time of a global shift in thought.

  26.【題干】The word "plummeting" (Line 3, Para 2) is closest in meaning to_____.

  【選項】

  A.stabilizing

  B.changing

  C.falling

  D.rising

  【答案】C

  【解析】這是一道詞義句意題,要想知道plummeting 的意思,首先要回到原文找線索,即plummeting所在的句子以及上下句,由原文可知,plummeting所在句子是在說現在例如風能和太陽能這樣的可再生資源的價格的問題,plummeting是修飾可再生資源的價格的,接著二段最后一句就在用具體數字來證明可再生資源的成本在下降,如太陽能成本下降了百分之八十,風能也降到三分之一,由此可知,可再生資源的成本在下降,plummeting的含義是下降的意思。所以選擇C falling.

  27.【題干】According to Paragraph 3,the use of renewable energy in America______.

  【選項】

  A.is progressing notably

  B.is as extensive as in Europe

  C.faces many challenges

  D.has proved to be impractical

  【答案】A

  【解析】這是一道具體細節題,根據題干關鍵詞定位至第三段第三句及第四句,意思是“在中國和歐洲等國家已經領先時,美國也在見證著巨大的改變。根據美國能源信息局報道,三月份,美國首次使用風能和太陽能產生了超過百分之十以上的能源。”這足以說明在美國,可再生能源的使用正在取得顯著地進步。所以答案是A.

  28.【題干】It can be learned that in Iowa,_____.

  【選項】

  A.wind is a widely used energy source

  B.wind energy has replaced fossil fuels

  C.tech giants are investing in clean energy

  D.there is a shortage of clean energy supply

  【答案】A

  【解析】這是一道細節推斷題,根據題干關鍵詞定位至第四段第三句,在愛荷華州,風力渦輪機點綴著這個州并提供了此州百分之三十六的電能,并且還吸引了像微軟這樣的科技巨頭公司。因此可判斷,在愛荷華州,風能是一種廣泛使用的能源。所以答案是A.

  29.【題干】Which of the following is true about clean energy according to Paragraphs 5&6?

  【選項】

  A.Its application has boosted battery storage

  B.It is commonly used in car manufacturing

  C.Its continuous supply is becoming a reality

  D.Its sustainable exploitation will remain difficult

  【答案】C

  【解析】這是一道是非細節題,根據題干給出的段落位置,5-6兩段和主題詞clean energy,回到原文的第5-6段,這兩段都不長,第五段出現了But后講到電池容量的提升a boost in the storage,與A選項不符,并不是因果關系,故排除;B選項說道廣泛用在制造業也不符合原文第六段第一句;而D選項和原文第六段最后一句是語義相反的,故也排除;正確選項C是和這句話語義一致的,也是和全文主題一致的,故為正確答案。

  30.【題干】It can be inferred from the last paragraph that renewable energy_____.

  【選項】

  A.will bring the US closer to other countries

  B.will accelerate global environmental change

  C.is not really encouraged by the US government

  D.is not competitive with regard to its cost

  【答案】C

  【解析】這是一道細節推斷題,題干問“根據最后一段可以推斷出來可再生能源怎么了”,回到原文最后一段第一句就表明盡管還有很長一段路要走,可再生能源發展的趨勢在增強。后面也提到改變的節奏在加快,對slowing氣候變化有meaningful effect,所以可以看出B選項accelerate...是不對的,D選項中提到的價格不具有競爭力不在本段當中,也應排除。剩下的兩個選項都提到了美國,就應該重點看最后一句,最后一句提到華盛頓政府做或不做什么都may mean less and less...所以可以看出美國不應該是和其他國家更近,排除A,所以選C,美國不是真正支持可再生能源的。

  Text 3

  The power and ambition of the giants of the digital economy is astonishing-Amazon has just announced the purchase of the upmarket grocery chain Whole Foods for $13.5bn, but two years ago Facebook paid even more than that to acquire the WhatsApp messaging service, which doesn't have any physical product at all. What WhatsApp offered Facebook was an intricate and finely detailed web of its users' friendships and social lives.

  Facebook promised the European commission then that it would not link

  phone numbers to Facebook identities, but it broke the promise almost as soon as the deal went through. Even without knowing what was in the messages, the knowledge of who sent them and to whom was enormously revealing and still could be. What political journalist, what party whip, would not want to know the makeup of the WhatsApp groups in which Theresa May's enemies are currently plotting? It may be that the value of Whole Foods to Amazon is not so much the 460 shops it owns, but the records of which customers have purchased what.

  Competition law appears to be the only way to address these imbalances of power. But it is clumsy. For one thing, it is very slow compared to the pace of change within the digital economy. By the time a problem has been addressed and remedied it may have vanished in the marketplace, to be replaced by new abuses of power. But there is a deeper conceptual problem, too. Competition law as presently interpreted deals with financial disadvantage to consumers and this is not obvious when the users of these services don't pay for them. The users of their services are no their customers. That would be the people who buy advertising from them-and Facebook and Google, the two virtual giants, dominate digital advertising to the disadvantage of all other media and entertainment companies.

  The product they're selling is data, and we, the users, convert our lives to data for the benefit of the digital giants. Just as some ants farm the bugs called aphids for the honeydew they produce when they feed, so Google farms us for the data that our digital lives yield. Ants keep predatory insects away from where their

  aphids feed; Gmail keeps the spammers out of our inboxes. It doesn't feel like a human or democratic relationship, even if both sides benefit.

  31.【題干】According to Paragraph 1, Facebook acquired WhatsApp for its_____.

  【選項】

  A.digital products

  B.user information

  C.physical assets

  D.quality service

  【答案】B

  【解析】細節題。根據題干信息定位到第一段第二句。該句提到兩年前Facebook花了更多的錢獲得了WhatsApp的信息服務。接著提到WhatsApp提供給Facebook的是關于其用戶的朋友圈以及社會生活等具體精煉的信息。由此可知,B項為正確答案。

  32.【題干】Linking phone numbers to Facebook identities may_____.

  【選項】

  A.worsen political disputers

  B.mess up customer records

  C.pose a risk to Facebook users

  D.mislead the European commission

  【答案】C

  【解析】細節題。根據題干關鍵詞linking the phone number定位第二段第一句。該句提到Facebook向歐洲委員會承諾不會把用戶的電話號與Facebook的身份認證連系到一起,但是協議通過之后Facebook立馬失信。接下來提到“甚至都不清楚信息里面都有什么,也不知誰發的消息,發送的目的又是什么”。因此,可能會給用戶造成風險。因此C項符合文意。

  33.【題干】According to the author, competition law_____.

  【選項】

  A.should serve the new market powers

  B.may worsen the economic imbalance

  C.should not provide just one legal solution

  D.cannot keep pace with the changing market

  【答案】D

  【解析】細節題。根據題干關鍵詞competition law 定位到第三段第一句。該句指出“競爭法似乎成為解決這些不平等權力的唯一辦法,但是此法案太過笨拙”。下一句提到“一方面,相比于數據經濟變化的速度,此法案發展是非常緩慢的”。由此可知,該法案跟不上當前市場變化的步伐。因此D項為正確答案。

  34.【題干】Competition law as presently interpreted can hardly protect Facebook users because_____.

  【選項】

  A.they are not defined as customers

  B.they are not financially reliable

  C.the services are generally digital

  D.the services are paid for by advertisers

  【答案】D

  【解析】根據題目中的because 可確定為因果細節題。題干中的信息出現在第三段后半部分,是題目中的原詞 competition law as presently interpreted,而原因在其后面的句子。下文寫到,the users of their services are not,讀到這里的not,一定要找而是誰。繼續讀下一句,That would be the people who buy advertising from them···,與選項對應,可得出[D]the services are paid for by advertisers。

  35.【題干】The ants analogy is used to illustrate_____.

  【選項】

  A.a win-win business model between digital giants

  B.a typical competition pattern among digital giants

  C.the benefits provided for digital giants' customers

  D.the relationship between digital giants and their users

  【答案】D

  【解析】根據題目中is used to illustrate可判斷為例證題,要找到the ants analogy論據所證明的論點;論點在論據之前,因此先找到論據the ants analogy,再找到論據前的論點句。所以本題定位到最后一段的第一句,The product …is data,and we…convert our lives to data…。此句中,data即digital giants,we 即 users。因此答案為[D]the relationship between digital giants and their users.

  Text 4

  To combat the trap of putting a premium on being busy, Cal Newport, author of Deep work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted world, recommends building a habit of "deep work"—the ability to focus without distraction.   There are a number of approaches to mastering the art of deep work—be it lengthy retreats dedicated to a specific task; developing a daily ritual; or taking a "journalistic" approach to seizing moments of deep work when you can throughout the day. Whichever approach, the key is to determine your length of focus time and stick to it.

  Newport also recommends "deep scheduling" to combat constant interruptions and get more done in less time." At any given point, I should have deep work scheduled for roughly the next month. Once on the calendar I protect this time like I would a doctor's appointment or important meeting", he writes.

  Another approach to getting more done in less time is to rethink how you prioritize your day—in particular how we craft our to-do lists. Tim Harford, author of Messy: The Power of Disorder to Transform Our Lives, points to a study in the early 1980s that divided undergraduates into two groups: some were advised to set out monthly goals and study activities; others were told to plan activities and goals in much more detail, day by day.   While the researchers assumed that the well-structured daily plans would be most effective when it came to the execution of tasks, they were wrong: the detailed daily plans demotivated students. Harford argues that inevitable distractions often render the daily to-do list ineffective, while leaving room for improvisation in such a list can reap the best results.

  In order to make the most of our focus and energy. We also need to embrace downtime, or as Newport suggests," be lazy."

  "Idleness is not just a vacation, an indulgence or a vice; it is as indispensable to be brain as Vitamin D is to the body...[idleness]is, paradoxically, necessary to getting any work done," he argues.

  Srini Pillay,an assistant professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, believes this counter-intuitive link between downtime and productivity may be due to the way our brains operate When our brains switch between being focused and unfocused on a task, they tend to be more efficient.

  "What people don't realise is that in order to complete these tasks they need to use both the focus and unfocus circuits in their brain". Says Pillay.

  36.【題干】The key to mastering the art of deep work is to _____.

  【選項】

  A.seize every minute to work

  B.list your immediate tasks

  C.make specific daily plans

  D.keep to your focus time

  【答案】D

  【解析】細節題。根據題干的mastering the art of deep work定位到第二段首句。該句指出“有很多種掌握深度工作的方法-不論是專注于指定工作時長時間的后退,或者養成慣例,還是當你一天有閑暇之余采用紀實的方式捕捉深度工作的瞬間”。接著提到“不論是那種方式,關鍵在于確定你的專注力時間長度并保持專注”。由此可知,D項為正確答案。

  37.【題干】The study in the early 1980s cited by Harford shows that _____.

  【選項】

  A.students are hardly motivated by monthly goals

  B.detailed plans many not be as fruitful as expected

  C.distractions may actually increase efficiency

  D.daily schedules are indispensable to studying

  【答案】B

  【解析】例證題。根據題干時間信息1980s以及Harford定位到第四段與第五段。第四段首句指出另一種短時間做更多事情的方法是反思怎么才能優先處理好你的一天-特別是制作我們待辦事項的方法。接著作者舉例大學生們分成小組每天做各種詳細復雜的任務。第五段首句用while畫風一轉,表示這種復雜的任務讓學生們感到消極,并表示工作中難免會分散注意力,這將影響日常待辦事項的效率?芍,作者用反面例子來論證觀點,即復雜的計劃可能沒有像期望的那樣有效果。故選B項。

  38.【題干】According to Newport, idleness is _____.

  【選項】

  A.a desirable mental state for busy people

  B.a major contributor to physical health

  C.an effective way to save time and energy

  D.an essential factor in accomplishing any work

  【答案】D

  【解析】根據題目Newport得出本題目為細節題中的文中人物觀點題。根據題干中的idleness可定位到倒數第三段,idleness is not,讀到這里依然需要看下文,下面提到it is as…as…,is necessary to getting any work done。再對應選項,可直接選出[D]an essential factor in accomplishing any work.

  39.【題干】Pillay believes that our brains' shift between being focused and unfocused_____.

  【選項】

  A.can bring about greater efficiency

  B.can result in psychological well-being

  C.is driven by task urgency

  D.is aimed at better balance in work

  【答案】A

  【解析】根據題目中的Pillay believes 可得出本題目為細節題中的文中人物觀點題型。根據題目中的信息,可以定位到倒數第二段最后一句,明確指出they tend to be more efficient。然后對應選項得出[A]can bring about greater efficiency。

  40.【題干】This text is mainly about_____.

  【選項】

  A.approaches to getting more done in less time

  B.Ways to relieve the tension of busy life

  C.The key to eliminating distractions

  D.The cause of the lack of focus time

  【答案】A

  【解析】根據題目的mainly about可知為文章主旨題,首先可以通過題目的復現內容找與文章主旨有關的詞匯,題目中反復出現了focus內容,可判斷與人們的注意力有。其次,文章主旨一般在開篇第一段或第二段會出現,第一段引用Cal Newport的觀點指出focus without distraction話題,第二段就提到了主題approaches to mastering thd art of deep work,此刻主題已明確,并且第四段有明顯的證明another approach。所以本題選[A]approaches to getting more done in less time。

  Part B

  Directions:

  Read the following text and match each of the numbered items in the left column to its corresponding information in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  Five ways to make conversation with anyone

  Conversations are links, which means when you have a conversation with a new person a link gets formed and every conversation you have after that moment will strengthen the link.

  You meet new people every day: the grocery worker, the cab driver, new people at work or the security guard at the door. Simply starting a conversation with them will form a link.

  Here are five simple ways that you can make the first move and start a conversation with strangers.

  41._____

  Suppose you are in a room with someone you don't know and something within you says" I want to talk with this person”—this is something the mostly happens with all of us. You wanted to say something—the first word—but it just won't come out. It feels like itis stuck somewhere, I know the feeling and here is my advice just get it out.

  Just think: that is the worst that could happen? They won't talk with you? Well, they are not talking with you now!

  I truly believe that once you get that first word out everything else will just flow. So keep it simple: “Hi”,“ Hey” or “Hello”—do the best you can to gather all of the enthusiasm and energy you can, put on a big smile and say “Hi”.

  42._____

  It's a problem all of us face: you have limited time with the person that you want to talk with and you want to make this talk memorable.

  Honestly, if we got stuck in the rut of "hi", "hello", “how are you?” and" what' s going on?" you will fail to give the initial jolt to the conversation that's can make it so memorable.

  So don't be afraid to ask more personal questions. Trust me, you'll be surprised to see how much people are willing to share if you just ask.

  43._____

  When you meet a person for the first time, make an effort to find the things which you and that person have in common so that you can build the conversation from that point. When you start conversation from there and then move outwards, you'll find all of a sudden that the conversation becomes a lot easier.

  44._____

  Imagine you are pouring your heart out to someone and they are just busy on their phone, and if you ask for their attention you get the response “I can multitask”.

  So when someone tries to communicate with you, just be in that communication wholeheartedly. Make eye contact, you can feel the conversation.

  45._____

  You all came into a conversation where you first met the person, but after some time you may have met again and have forgotten their name. Isn't that awkward!

  So remember the little details of the people you met or you talked with; perhaps the places they have been to the place they want to go, the things they like, the thing the hate—whatever you talk about.

  When you remember such thing you can automatically become investor in their wellbeing. So the feel a responsibility to you to keep that relationship going.

  That's it. Five amazing ways that you can make conversation with almost anyone. Every person is a really good book to read, or to have a conversation with!

  41.【題干】_____.

  【選項】

  A.Be present

  B.Just say it

  C.Ask for an opinion

  D.Find the “me too” s

  E.Name, places, things

  F.skip the small talk

  G.Pay a unique compliment

  【答案】B

  【解析】該小標題需要涵蓋三段內容。第一段開始說到你想跟陌生人說話,但是“it just won’t come out”,提到說話說不出來,隨后直接出現我的建議“My advice:just get it out“,即去說。所以選B:Just say it去說

  42.【題干】___.

  【選項】

  A.Be present

  B.Just say it

  C.Ask for an opinion

  D.Find the"me too"s

  E.Name,places,things

  F.skip the small talk

  G.Pay a unique compliment

  【答案】F

  【解析】該小標題下第一段第一句話就說了你時間有限“you have limited time”,然后說到如果陷到寒暄當中“hi,hello,how are you, what is going on”會讓對話沒法令人印象深刻。下一段“So”表明結論,去問更多個人問題“personal questions”,所以選F:Skip the small talk跳過寒暄

  43.【題干】_____.

  【選項】

  A.Be present

  B.Just say it

  C.Ask for an opinion

  D.Find the"me too"s

  E.Name,places,things

  F.skip the small talk

  G.Pay a unique compliment

  【答案】D

  【解析】第一句話就說到了第一次交談要找到共同點“have in common”,從這個共同點“that point”來開展對話“build the conversation”,所以選D:find the “me too”s找到共同點

  44.【題干】_____.

  【選項】

  A.Be present

  B.Just say it

  C.Ask for an opinion

  D.Find the"me too"s

  E.Name,places,things

  F.skip the small talk

  G.Pay a unique compliment

  【答案】G

  【解析】第一段先舉例,說你跟人講心事時,別人分心干別的。然后下一段“So”表明結論,人家跟跟你溝通,你要全心投入“wholeheartedly”。所以選G:Pay a unique complement專注

  45.【題干】_____.

  【選項】

  A.Be present

  B.Just say it

  C.Ask for an opinion

  D.Find the"me too"s

  E.Name,places,things

  F.skip the small talk

  G.Pay a unique compliment

  【答案】E

  【解析】第一句話就提到了忘記只見過一面的人的名字“name”。“So”后面又提到回憶地點“places”和好惡的事情“things”等細節,所以選E:Name,places,things

 

  翻譯

  Translation

   46.【題干】A fifth grader gets a homework assignment to select his future career path from a list of occupations. He ticks "astronaut" but quickly adds "scientist" to the list and selects it as well. The boy is convinced that if he reads enough, he can explore as many career paths as he likes. And so he reads-everything from encyclopedias to science fiction novels. He reads so fervently that his parents have to institute a "no reading policy" at the dinner table.

  That boy was Bill Gates, and he hasn't stopped reading yet-not even after becoming one of the most successful people on the planet. Nowadays, his reading material has changed from sci-fi and reference books: recently, he revealed that he reads at least 50 nonfiction books a year. Gates chooses nonfiction titles because they explain how the world works.

  "Each book opens up new avenues of knowledge to explore."-Gates say.

  【答案】一個五年級的學生收到一份家庭作業:即從一系列職業中選擇自己未來的職業道路。他勾劃了“宇航員”,但很快由將“科學家”添加到列表中,并也將其選中。這個男孩相信,如果他讀得足夠多,他就可以探索盡可能多的他喜歡的職業道路。所以他讀書廣泛——從百科全書到科幻小說。他讀得如此投入,以至于他的父母不得不制定一個:在餐桌上的“不讀書政策”。

  那個男孩就是比爾蓋茨,他沒有停止閱讀,甚至在他成為這個星球上最成功的人士之一后,仍舊沒有停下來,F在,他的閱讀材料已經不再是科幻小說和工具書了:最近據他所說,他一年內至少讀了50本非科幻小說。比爾蓋茨選擇非科幻小說類書籍,是因為這類書籍解釋了世界是如何運作的。“每本書都開辟了新的知識探索渠道。”蓋茨說。

 

  作文

  Section IV Writing

  Part A

  47. Directions:

  Suppose you have to cancel your travel plan and will not be able to visit Professor Smith. Write him an email to

  1) apologize and explain the situation, and

  2) suggest a future meeting.

  You should write about 100 words neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.

  Do not use your own name at the end of the email. Use “Li Ming” instead (10 points)

2018年考研(一月聯考)英語二真題

  參考范文:

  Dear Professor,

  Thank you for your generous invitation. Unfortunately, it is much to my regret that I cannot meet you as previously arranged.

  I am fully occupied for an important exam coming the day after tomorrow. It is of great importance to me because it tightly concerned my graduation, I feel terribly sorry for missing the chance of such a happy get-together, and I hope that all of you enjoy a good time. Is it possible for you and me to have a private meeting afterwards? If so, please don't hesitate to drop me a line about your preferable date. I do long for a pleasant and in-depth communication with you.

  Please allow me to say sorry again.

  Yours,

  Li Ming

  Part B

  48. Directions:Write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing you should

  1) interpret the chart, and

  2) give your comments.

  You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET.(15 points)

  參考范文:

  What is shown in the pie graph above indicates the factors that exert influences on customers’ choice of restaurants. From the chart, we can find that people attach greatest importance to the unique characteristics of a restaurant, occupying 36.3% of all the factors. Environment and services take up the next two largest shares, accounting for 26.3% and 26.8% respectively. Price

  has slipped to the lowest position of only 8.4% when customers choose a restaurant.

  What exactly contributes to these changes? Several reasons can be listed as followed. Development in economy is an essential one in the recent years. The increased income results in the greatly improved living standard; hence, a small percentage of total income is enough to cover the expense of eating outside. Another one is the changes in people’s conception. When food presents no worry to the average, people begin to focus more of their interest on specialties and services of each restaurant. As a result of such a shift, the appearance of the tendency seems to be inevitable.

  Based on the statistics shown and the analysis made above, we can safely come to a conclusion: the tendency will continue to rise for quite a while in the years to come. Time tells.

    以上內容是2018年在職研究生英語二真題及參考答案,如果想要了解更多在職研究生真題,可以隨時關注四川育路教育網在職研究生考試試題欄目,或及時聯系在線老師。

結束

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